Sunday, October 28, 2012

Civil War Sunday - The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

Many people are not aware that the "Emancipation Proclamation" that was effective on January 1, 1863, was preceded by a Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862, in the wake of the Union victory at Antietam (near Sharpsburg, MD).

On November 1 and November 2, a museum in Binghamton will feature, from a traveling exhibit, the only copy of the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in Lincoln's own handwriting.

Quoting from the article:

" Lincoln’s handwritten Preliminary Proclamation, issued one hundred fifty years ago in the midst of the Civil War, is the only surviving copy of this document in Lincoln’s own handwriting. Lincoln donated it to the U.S. Sanitary Commission, which raffled the document at an Albany Army Relief Association Fair in 1864. It was later purchased by the New York State Legislature."

A chance to view history.  Will anyone come out?

A few weeks ago, this exhibit was in Syracuse.  I was told there were 3 hour waits.

Will I brave the crowds? That depends on the weather.  Between now and November 1, we will go through what the media is calling Frankenstorm.  I hope I can get to see it.  Besides being able to view Lee's "lost order" back in September, this would be a great thrill for me and other lovers of history.

This is the full text, if anyone is interested, courtesy of  I will blog later, this year, about the Emancipation Proclamation itself, which is a document misunderstood by many.

Incidentally, William Seward, Lincoln's Secretary of State, and the man responsible for the purchase of the territory that became Alaska from Russia, was also a governor of New York and both a New York State Senator and a State Senator.  I plan to blog about him at a future date, also.

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, September 22, 1862

By the President of the United States of America.
A Proclamation.
I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thereof, do hereby proclaim and declare that hereafter, as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object of practically restoring the constitutional relation between the United States, and each of the States, and the people thereof, in which States that relation is, or may be, suspended or disturbed.
That it is my purpose, upon the next meeting of Congress to again recommend the adoption of a practical measure tendering pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or rejection of all slave States, so called, the people whereof may not then be in rebellion against the United States and which States may then have voluntarily adopted, or thereafter may voluntarily adopt, immediate or gradual abolishment of slavery within their respective limits; and that the effort to colonize persons of African descent, with their consent, upon this continent, or elsewhere, with the previously obtained consent of the Governments existing there, will be continued.
That on the first day of January in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the executive government of the United States,including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
That the executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States, and part of States, if any, in which the people thereof respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof shall, on that day be, in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by members chosen thereto, at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United States.
That attention is hereby called to an Act of Congress entitled "An Act to make an additional Article of War" approved March 13, 1862, and which act is in the words and figure following:
"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That hereafter the following shall be promulgated as an additional article of war for the government of the army of the United States, and shall be obeyed and observed as such:
"Article-All officers or persons in the military or naval service of the United States are prohibited from employing any of the forces under their respective commands for the purpose of returning fugitives from service or labor, who may have escaped from any persons to whom such service or labor is claimed to be due, and any officer who shall be found guilty by a court martial of violating this article shall be dismissed from the service.
"Sec.2. And be it further enacted, That this act shall take effect from and after its passage."
Also to the ninth and tenth sections of an act entitled "An Act to suppress Insurrection, to punish Treason and Rebellion, to seize and confiscate property of rebels, and for other purposes," approved July 17, 1862, and which sections are in the words and figures following:
"Sec.9. And be it further enacted, That all slaves of persons who shall hereafter be engaged in rebellion against the government of the United States, or who shall in any way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping from such persons and taking refuge within the lines of the army; and all slaves captured from such persons or deserted by them and coming under the control of the government of the United States; and all slaves of such persons found on (or) being within any place occupied by rebel forces and afterwards occupied by the forces of the United States, shall be deemed captives of war, and shall be forever free of their servitude and not again held as slaves.
"Sec.10. And be it further enacted, That no slave escaping into any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, from any other State, shall be delivered up, or in any way impeded or hindered of his liberty, except for crime, or some offence against the laws, unless the person claiming said fugitive shall first make oath that the person to whom the labor or service of such fugitive is alleged to be due is his lawful owner, and has not borne arms against the United States in the presen t rebellion, nor in any way given aid and comfort thereto; and no person engaged in the military or naval service of the United States shall, under any pretence whatever, assume to decide on the validity of the claim of any person to the service or labor of any other person, or surrender up any such person to the claimant, on pain of being dismissed from the service."
And I do hereby enjoin upon and order all persons engaged in the military and naval service of the United States to observe, obey, and enforce, within their respective spheres of service, the act, and sections above recited.
And the executive will in due time recommend that all citizens of the United States who shall have remained loyal thereto throughout the rebellion, shall (upon the restoration of the constitutional relation between the United States, and their respective States, and people, if that relation shall have been suspended or disturbed) be compensated for all losses by acts of the United States, including the loss of slaves.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington this twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand, eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty seventh.
[Signed:] By the President, Abraham Lincoln,
[Signed:] William H. Seward, Secretary of State


  1. As a Brit I know relatively little about the Civil War, but - and like many others of my age - I do remember being fascinated by it from a very young age, mainly due to the films about it I saw on TV although we did study it in history lessons at school.

    So, a quick question if I may. I was aware of the Emancipation Proclamation but didn't know that there had been a preliminary one. Do you know why it was superceded by the final version? A quick look around the Web seems to indicate that that happened because the initial one had not achieved all of its aims, although I may be wrong because nothing I read seemed to be conclusive.

    1. That is a very good question and the answer, as I understood it, is: the Preliminary Emancipation was "read to Congress" in July of 1862, with Lincoln intending to issue it after a major Union victory. In September of 1862 Lincoln won that victory, and he issued the preliminary proclamation giving the states in rebellion until January 1, 1863 to end fighting and rejoin the Union. Of course, none of them did and a "permanent" Emancipation Proclamation went into effect January 1, 1863. Two important points many people do not realize is that 1) the Emancipation Proclamation did not outlaw slavery and 2)only slaves in states in rebellion were freed. Slaves in slave states that stayed with the Union (4 states plus West Virginia, which split off from Virginia and rejoined the Union) were not affected. I love that you are interested in our history. Also, please realize that I am not a historian, just a layperson interested in history.

  2. Interesting comment and response. Alana, these Sunday posts do soooo much to increase my knowledge. Thank you.


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